Like other animal species, pigs need 6 essential nutrients. Nutritional needs in pigs are generally the same as the nutritional needs of beef cattle. The nutrient components are water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and vitamins. The function of each for the body of a pig, basically the same as cattle. Pigs need different types of pig nutrition and feeding on different feed ingredients. Often the comparison and the quantity are different from the cows.
Pigs do not benefit from the digestion of micro-organisms. Because pigs include animals with a single hull. Therefore, the amount of fibrous feed ingredient in pig ration should be no more than 5%. The quality must be good, for example, alfalfa leaf flour, legumes, or cereal seeds.
Forage in the ration acts as a source of vitamins. As a bulk filler (bulk) and can also be lactating. Proteins in pig rations should be of high quality to meet the demands of amino acids (protein constituents) in adequate proportions. Therefore, amino acid levels in the feed ingredients are important. The need for the addition of vitamins because the digestive tract of pigs is not able to synthesize these vitamins a number of required.
Amino Acids and Proteins
Presentation of protein in the ration should pay attention to quantity and quality. Mixed protein sources (such as soy flour, milk or meat) can provide quality protein in the form of premix supplements.
The quality of protein is reflected by its amino acid content more and more variety. There are 10 kinds of amino acids that are classified as essential to support normal growth. Amino acids in question are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.
Fat levels as high as 1 to 1.5% can ensure sufficient need for fatty acids. The addition of fat to 20% can increase the rate of growth but often leads to too fatty carcasses or so-called ‘soft pork’. Current market demand is a little fatty pork or is called ‘lean pork’. Therefore, the fat content in the feed should not exceed 5%.
Carbohydrate content of a ration is a major component to meet energy needs. Because energy can also come from fat and even protein. So the balance of carbohydrates in the ration also needs to be considered. TDN or Total Digestible Nutrient is useful for estimating energy demand. To arrive at the determination for TDN, the only loss of nutrients from the total energy consumed by an animal is the loss in the form of undigested feed in the feces. Although roughly components outside the feces are entirely exploited by animals, they are not.
Calcium (Ca) appears to be the mineral most needed by pigs. Calcium (Ca) deficiency in pigs presents a gradual effect. The limp leg is an early symptom that we can see and can then develop into paralysis of the hind legs. After a deficiency lasting 3 or 4 months, will begin to arise paralysis. The ingredients as a source of calcium (Ca) include bone meal, caps, and milled flour or shell.